La Banca d’Italia “è controllata dalle grandi banche private” e, quindi, “non è indipendente”. E’ sempre stato uno degli argomenti preferiti dai detrattori, poco informati, della Banca centrale. Un’affermazione ripetuta nel tempo ma semplicemente falsa. Quella che si può definire una fake news. E se fino a ieri era lo Statuto a stabilire con sufficiente chiarezza che gli azionisti non esercitano alcun controllo su Via Nazionale, oggi sono gli effetti di una riforma del 2014 a rendere la tesi ancora più lontana dalla realtà. L’obiettivo finale della riforma, non ancora raggiunto, è quello di creare un mercato per le quote del capitale. Ma la fotografia scattata dall’assemblea annuale della scorsa settimana restituisce un risultato che deve far considerare raggiunto almeno un traguardo intermedio: l’azionariato sta cambiando, anche sostanzialmente. Al punto che dall’avvio della riforma è passato di mano il 30,65% del capitale e i tre maggiori partecipanti, Intesa SanPaolo, Unicredit e Generali, hanno ceduto complessivamente il 27,02%. Non erano i ‘padroni’ di Bankitalia prima e, a maggior ragione, non lo sono ora. Se infatti, come recita lo Statuto, l’assemblea dei partecipanti, formata da tutti i detentori, si limita a nominare i componenti del Consiglio superiore, un organo che ha compiti di amministrazione e vigilanza interna alla banca ma che “non ha alcuna ingerenza” nelle materie relative all’esercizio delle funzioni pubbliche, il peso delle banche nell’azionariato si sta riducendo. A comprare quote è stato soprattutto il sistema delle Casse di previdenza private, salito oltre il 14%, fino a diventare il secondo azionista. Gli effetti della riforma sono evidenti nel dato che riguarda i nuovi azionisti, 85 in tutto: 6 compagnie di assicurazione, 8 fondi pensione, 9 enti di previdenza, 20 fondazioni di matrice bancaria e 42 banche. Oggi, i partecipanti al capitale sono diventati 124. Restano quattro gruppi sopra la soglia del 3%, entro la quale si percepisce il dividendo: Intesa SanPaolo al 25%, Unicredit al 13,6%, Generali al 4,6% e Carige il 4%. Sulla soglia del 3% (9000 quote) ci sono Inps e Inail ma anche Enpam (cassa medici), Inarcassa (ingegneri e architetti) e Cassa forense. Appena sotto la soglia, ci sono Bnl e Mps seguite da Enpaia (cassa impiegati e dirigenti dell’agricoltura). Fra le altre casse ci sono poi la Cnpadc (dottori commercialisti), Enpacl (consulenti del lavoro), Cassa ragionieri (1500), Enpap (psicologi 400).


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